by Sumana Sarkar & S. Himesh
The monsoon-driven river basins are more vulnerable to the flash-floods triggered by intense rainfall activities. Due to the lack of adequate high resolution forecast of real-time hydro-meteorological variables, a reliable forecast of flash floods remains a challenge. One plausible way to generate such a high-resolution forecast of hydro-meteorological variables is to use a coupled atmospheric–hydrologic modelling system. Thus, in this study, a physically-based, fully distributed, multi-scale hydrologic modelling framework, WRF-Hydro with optimized configurations (stand-alone and coupled-mode) is used to simulate the important hydro-meteorological variables like precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, and land surface heat fluxes over Cauvery river basin, India. In stand-alone mode, the model is driven by the high-resolution gridded data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System; while the coupled model is run with the WRF atmospheric model. In this study, the ability of a fully coupled WRF–WRF-Hydro modelling framework , with 3 km grid spacing is used to simulate the hydro-meteorological conditions during an extreme rainfall event (08–09 August 2019). The innermost domain of WRF-Hydro in conjunction with a high resolution hydrological routing grid (300 m) is also utilized, to include the subgrid scale disaggregation–aggregation weighting procedures to generate the land–atmospheric feedbacks on the hydrometeorological variables. The resulting variables have been validated through relevant observations; the overall performance of the coupled WRF-Hydro is shown to be relatively good when compared to the WRF-only simulations.
by Arya V. B., Sajani Surendran and Kavirajan Rajendran
Association of higher (lower) rainfall with lower (higher) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is consistent with the understanding that increased washout (build-up) and shorter (longer) life-time of aerosols occur in wetter (drier) conditions. Given the life-time of aerosols, it is imperative to examine how aerosols impact active/break (wetter/drier than normal) spells, the prominent intraseasonal variability (ISV) of Indian summer monsoon (ISM), through their composite analysis using recent satellite observations of aerosols and cloud properties, circulation and rainfall. Dust aerosols can act as CCN and participate efficiently in cloud processes during active phase. During breaks, build-up of desert dust transported by prevalent circulation, is associated with lower cloud effective radius implying aerosols’ indirect effect where they can inhibit cloud growth in the presence of reduced moisture and decrease precipitation efficiency/rainfall. Correspondingly, correlation albeit small, between intraseasonal anomalies of AOD and rainfall is negative, when AOD leads rainfall by 3–5 days implying that indirect aerosols impact is effective during breaks, though it is not the dominant responsible factor. During breaks, lower shortwave flux at top of atmosphere hints at dust-induced semi-direct effect. As breaks are permanent features of ISM, incorporation of dust-induced feedbacks in models, is essential for improved ISV simulation and ISM prediction.
Citation: Arya V. B., Sajani Surendran and Kavirajan Rajendran. On the build-up of dust aerosols and possible indirect effect during Indian summer monsoon break spells using recent satellite observations of aerosols and cloud properties. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 130, 42 (2021).