by K. C. Gouda, S. Joshi & Nagaraj Bhat
Using an initial manifold approach, an ensemble forecast methodology is shown to simultaneously increase lead and realizable skill in long-range forecasting of monsoon over continental India. Initial manifold approach distinguishes the initial states that have coherence from a collection of unrelated states. In this work, an optimized and validated variable resolution general circulation model is being adopted for long-range forecasting of monsoon using the multi-lead ensemble methodology. In terms of realizable skill (as against potential) at resolution (~60km) and lead (2–5 months) considered here, the present method performs very well. The skill of the improved methodology is significant, capturing 9 of the 12 extreme years of monsoon during 1980–2003 in seasonal (June–August) scale. Eight-member ensemble-average hindcasts carried out for realizable skill with lead of 2 (for June) to 5 (for August) months and an optimum ensemble is presented.